Physics of Memory Devices

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Credits
6
Types
Elective
Requirements
This subject has not requirements, but it has got previous capacities
Department
FIS
Students should know the basics of magnetism, electromagnetic waves, quantum physics and optics in order to understand the basics of how computers (and a wide variety of devices such as cellulars, tablets, etc.) store data, as well as complementary instruments essential for reading and writing of memories and data transmission, such as lasers or optical fibers.

Teachers

Person in charge

  • Gemma Sese Castel ( )

Others

  • Jordi Martí Rabassa ( )

Weekly hours

Theory
1.8
Problems
1.8
Laboratory
0.3
Guided learning
0.533
Autonomous learning
5.6

Competences

Technical Competences

Common technical competencies

  • CT1 - To demonstrate knowledge and comprehension of essential facts, concepts, principles and theories related to informatics and their disciplines of reference.
    • CT1.1A - To demonstrate knowledge and comprehension about the fundamentals of computer usage and programming, about operating systems, databases and, in general, about computer programs applicable to the engineering.
    • CT1.1B - To demonstrate knowledge and comprehension about the fundamentals of computer usage and programming. Knowledge about the structure, operation and interconnection of computer systems, and about the fundamentals of its programming.
    • CT1.2A - To interpret, select and value concepts, theories, uses and technological developments related to computer science and its application derived from the needed fundamentals of mathematics, statistics and physics. Capacity to solve the mathematical problems presented in engineering. Talent to apply the knowledge about: algebra, differential and integral calculus and numeric methods; statistics and optimization.
    • CT1.2B - To interpret, select and value concepts, theories, uses and technological developments related to computer science and its application derived from the needed fundamentals of mathematics, statistics and physics. Capacity to understand and dominate the physical and technological fundamentals of computer science: electromagnetism, waves, circuit theory, electronics and photonics and its application to solve engineering problems.
    • CT1.2C - To use properly theories, procedures and tools in the professional development of the informatics engineering in all its fields (specification, design, implementation, deployment and products evaluation) demonstrating the comprehension of the adopted compromises in the design decisions.
  • CT8 - To plan, conceive, deploy and manage computer projects, services and systems in every field, to lead the start-up, the continuous improvement and to value the economical and social impact.
    • CT8.1 - To identify current and emerging technologies and evaluate if they are applicable, to satisfy the users needs.
    • CT8.4 - To elaborate the list of technical conditions for a computers installation fulfilling all the current standards and normative.

Transversal Competences

Reasoning

  • G9 [Avaluable] - Capacity of critical, logical and mathematical reasoning. Capacity to solve problems in her study area. Abstraction capacity: capacity to create and use models that reflect real situations. Capacity to design and perform simple experiments and analyse and interpret its results. Analysis, synthesis and evaluation capacity.
    • G9.2 - Analysis and synthesis capacity, capacity to solve problems in its field, and to interpret the results in a critical way. Abstraction capacity: capacity to create and use models which reflect real situations. Capacity to design and perform simple experiments and to analyse and interpret their results in a critical way.

Objectives

  1. Understanding the operation of new technologies for data storage in computers, phones, cameras, tablets, etc.
    Related competences: CT8.1, G9.2, CT1.1B, CT1.2B,
  2. Understanding the magnetic field and its interactions
    Related competences: CT1.2A, CT1.2B,
  3. Understanding the phenomenon of magnetic induction and its applications to technology
    Related competences: CT1.2A, CT1.2C, CT1.2B,
  4. Understanding the properties of electromagnetic waves and their applications
    Related competences: CT1.2A, CT1.2C, G9.2, CT1.2B,
  5. Understanding of the basic principles of Quantum Physics and its applications
    Related competences: CT1.2A, CT1.2C, G9.2, CT1.2B,
  6. Comprensió del làser i les seves característiques
    Related competences: CT1.2C, G9.2, CT1.2B,
  7. Understanding the operation of electronic and optoelectronic devices
    Related competences: CT1.2C, CT8.1, G9.2, CT1.2B,
  8. Using especific instruments from electronics, magnetism and optics laboratories (oscilloscope, digital multimeter, measuring magnetic fields-Hall probe, laser, etc.)
    Related competences: CT8.4, G9.2,
  9. Performing data analysis and use of a wide variety of information' sources
    Related competences: CT1.2A, CT1.2C, G9.2, CT1.1A,

Contents

  1. 1. MAGNETIC FIELD
    1.1. Magnetism in nature. Oersted experiment.
    1.2. Magnetic forces on charges and currents: Lorentz force.
    1.3. Hall effect. Hall effect sensors.
    1.4. Field lines.
  2. 2. MAGNETIC INDUCTION
    2.1. Induction phenomena.
    2.2. Law of magnetic induction.
    2.3. Eddy currents.
    2.4. Magnetic Energy.
    2.5. Diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials.
    2.6. Magnetic memories. Ferroelectric memories. Motor drives.
  3. 3. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
    3.1. Electromagnetic spectrum.
    3.2. Propagation. Laws of reflection and refraction. Optical fibers.
    3.3. Polarization (absorption, reflection and dispersion). Birefringence. Optical instruments.
    3.4. Interference. Diffraction. Diffraction gratings.
    3.5. Magnetooptical and optical memories. Holographic memories.
  4. 4. QUANTUM PHYSICS
    4.1. Introduction: photoelectric effect and Compton effect, ideas about special relativity, atomic spectra, Bohr model
    4.2 Wave properties of particles
    4.3 Principle of uncertainty of Heisenberg
    4.4 Schrödinger equation
    4.5 Tunnel effect: Scanning Tunneling Microscope, tunnel effect diode
    4.6 Atomic quantum theory: hydrogen atom, electron spin, periodic table of elements
    4.7 Applications: Giant magnetoresistence, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
  5. 5. LASER
    5.1. Incandescence and luminescence
    5.2. Einstein's quantum theory of radiation
    5.3. Essential elements of a laser
    5.4. Characteristics of laser light
    5.5. Classification of lasers
    5.6. General applications of lasers
  6. 6. ELECTRONIC ANDI OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES
    6.1. Theory of conductivity: semiconductors.
    6.2. MOSFET transistors.
    6.3. Flash memory Memory circuits Scaling theory. Manufacture of integrated circuits.
    6.4. Direct and indirect gap semiconductors. LED. Laser diode
    6.5. Photoconductivity. Photodiodes. Solar cells CCD sensors and MOS sensors
    6.6. DRAM cells. Miniaturization

Activities

Activity Evaluation act


1. Magnetic Field

Development of the chapter 1 of the course: Analysis of properties and effects of magnetic fields. Calculation of magnetic fields and magnetic forces.
Objectives: 8 9 2
Contents:
Theory
4h
Problems
4h
Laboratory
2h
Guided learning
1h
Autonomous learning
15h

2. Magnetic induction

Development of the second topic of the course: Description of the phenomenon of induction, Eddy's currents and their main applications in data storage: magnetic memories
Objectives: 9 1 3
Contents:
Theory
4h
Problems
4h
Laboratory
0h
Guided learning
0h
Autonomous learning
12h

3. Electromagnetic waves

Development of the third issue of the course: Description of properties of electromagnetic waves in connection with the subject "Physics". Study of interference and diffraction, liquid crystals and their main applications in data storage: optical, magneto optical and holographic memories
Objectives: 8 1 4
Contents:
Theory
5h
Problems
4h
Laboratory
2h
Guided learning
1h
Autonomous learning
16h

4. Quantum Physics

Development of the fourth issue of the course: Introduction to the main phenomena and quantum equations: duality, uncertainty, Schrödinger equation, spin. Application to magnetoresistance.
Objectives: 9 1 5
Contents:
Theory
6h
Problems
6.5h
Laboratory
0h
Guided learning
1h
Autonomous learning
17h

5. Laser

Development of the fifth issue of the course: Description of Einstein's theory of radiation, lasers and their properties and applications.
Objectives: 8 1 6
Contents:
Theory
3h
Problems
2h
Laboratory
0h
Guided learning
0h
Autonomous learning
8h

6. Electronic and optoelectronic devices

Development of the 6th. topic of the programme: Review and extension of the theory of semiconductors and MOSFET transistors. Applications to flash memory, sensors, solar cells.
Objectives: 9 1 7
Contents:
Theory
5h
Problems
4.5h
Laboratory
0h
Guided learning
1h
Autonomous learning
16h

Partial exam

Written test after teaching the first three issues of the programme.
Objectives: 1 2 3 4
Week: 8
Type: problems exam
Theory
0h
Problems
2h
Laboratory
0h
Guided learning
0h
Autonomous learning
0h

Final exam/second partial exam

Exam on the contents of the course. Students who have passed the first partial test may take an exam on the last three issues.
Objectives: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Week: 15 (Outside class hours)
Type: final exam
Theory
0h
Problems
0h
Laboratory
0h
Guided learning
2h
Autonomous learning
0h

Simulation exercise

Doing and explaining of results of a numerical simulation practical exercise
Objectives: 9 1
Week: 14
Type: assigment
Theory
0h
Problems
0h
Laboratory
0h
Guided learning
2h
Autonomous learning
0h

Teaching methodology

The theoretical content will be worked out in lectures followed by practical sessions were problems and exercises will be discussed and solved. There will be two laboratory practices and one directed practice of numerical simulation, all of them performed by pairs.

Evaluation methodology

The evaluation is based on a midterm and a final exam, assessment of the problems done in class, the practical activities made at the laboratory and the rating of a simulation work.

Approximately at half of the semester there will be an exam, covering the first half of the syllabus. The final exam will test both the first and the second part. The first half is optional for those students who have passed the first part. The rating of the first part will be the maximum of two notes.

The final grade is calculated as follows:

NF = 0.50*NT + 0.25*NSim + 0.10*NPrac + 0.15*NPro

Where:

NF = Final mark
NT = [max (Npar, NEx1) NEx2 +] / 2
NPar = partial exam
NEx1 = 1st half of the final exam
NEx2 = 2nd half of the final exam
NSim = Mark of the simulation work
NPrac = Average of laboratory practices
NPro = mark of problems made at the classroom

The grade of the transversal ability G9 will be determined from exams (NE) and problems
(NPro) with marks : A ( excellent ) , B ( good ) , C ( enough) , D ( not passed ) .

Bibliography

Basic:

Complementary:

Web links

Previous capacities

1. General knowledge : Physics and Mathematics at the level of Initial Phase at FIB.

2. Specific knowledge : analytical mathematical formalism and elementary notions of vector calculus .

3. Capacity : learning, problem solving, information search, abstraction and use of mathematical language .

Addendum

Contents

NO HI HA CANVIS RESPECTE A LA INFORMACIÓ PUBLICADA A LA GUIA DOCENT

Teaching methodology

En cas que la docència no pugui realitzar-se de forma presencial, es realitzarà telemàticament via "Google Meet". Així mateix, es subministrarà el material de suport per poder seguir les classes adequadament.

Evaluation methodology

NO HI HA CANVIS RESPECTE A LA INFORMACIÓ PUBLICADA A LA GUIA DOCENT

Contingency plan

Si no fos possible la realització de pràctiques presencialment al laboratori, aquestes se substituiran per exercicis numèrics d'aplicació dels conceptes teòrics explicats.