Saltar al contingut Menu
Map
  • Home
  • Information
  • Contact
  • Map

Introduction to Computers (IC)

Credits Dept. Type Requirements
7.5 (6.0 ECTS) AC
  • Compulsory for DIE
  • Compulsory for DCSFW
  • Compulsory for DCSYS
   

Instructors

Person in charge:  (-)
Others:(-)

General goals

The student should be able to:

- Understand and design the combinational and sequential digital circuits for designing a simple computer, based on the SISP-1-1 and SISP-1-2 processors.

- Understand the SISA-1 machine language and assembler, the inner structure at the digital circuit level of the SISP-1-1 and SISP-1-2 processors and know how their instructions are executed.

Specific goals

Knowledges

  1. Use one"s own words to define analogue, digital, synchronous, and asynchronous electrical signals. Understand the need to code information.
  2. Understand the conventional system using base b to represent natural numbers and know how to carry out basic arithmetic operations in binary.
  3. Learn about combinational logic circuits and how to analyze and design circuits with few inputs using NOT, AND and OR gates or ROM memory.
  4. Learn about sequential logic circuits and how to analyze and design circuits with few inputs using NOT, AND and OR gates, ROM memory, and edge-triggered bistables.
  5. Learn how how to analyze and design circuits with combinational and sequential blocks handling words of n bits (v.g. n=16). Learn how to analyze and design special-purpose processors comprising a Processing Unit and a Control Unit. The processing unit is designed in an ad-hoc fashion. The unit incorporates combineal and sequential blocks. The control unit is specified using a state graph.
  6. Learn the sign and magnitude numeration system and the base-2 system for representing natural numbers and know how to carry out basic arithmetic operations using base-2.
  7. Grasp the similarities and differences between a special-purpose processor and a general-purpose processor, and justify: the suitability of implicit sequencing, compact format instruction coding, and a data memory together with its load and store instructions.
  8. Learn the instruction set for the SISA-1 machine language, its specification in assembler language, and the processes involved in executing a programme written in a high-level language.
  9. Grasp the internal structure and workings of the SISP-1-1 processor, in which each instruction takes up a clock cycle for its execution. Understand the structure and workings of a simple computer based on the SISP-1-1 processor.
  10. Understand the internal structure of the SISP-1-2 processor, in which each instruction takes several clock cycles for execution (and where the number of cycles may vary according to the instructions). Understand the structure and workings of a simple computer based on the SISP-1-2 processor.

Abilities

  1. Master the Logic Works 4 digital circuits simulator. Ability to create basic components in a teaching computer and to simulate its functioning.

Competences

  1. Ability to create and use models of reality.
  2. Ability to understand problems: given a problem, distinguish between data (or starting elements), unknowns (or what is asked for), hypotheses, and the laws applicable.
  3. Ability to constract informal or precise semi-formal arguments, and to judge the validity of such arguments.
  4. Ability to think in abstract terms. Ability to tackle new problems by consciously using strategies that have proved useful in solving previous problems.
  5. Ability to organise one"s own work: ability to set priorities for various tasks, plan one"s time, and organise one"s notes.
  6. Ability to study various sources, recognise that the information obtained in class is insufficient, and to seek the supplementary information required.
  7. Ability to work effectively in small groups to solve problems of middling difficulty.
  8. Ability to present a well-written report setting out one"s results and document submission of practical work).

Contents

Estimated time (hours):

T P L Alt Ext. L Stu A. time
Theory Problems Laboratory Other activities External Laboratory Study Additional time

1. Introduction to the course
T      P      L      Alt    Ext. L Stu    A. time Total 
2,0 0 0 0 0 1,0 0 3,0
Course presentation. Introduction to some concepts regarding electrical signals and information coding.

2. Natural numbers: numbering systems and changing bases.
T      P      L      Alt    Ext. L Stu    A. time Total 
1,0 1,0 0 0 0 1,5 0 3,5

3. Introduction to combinational logic circuits. Basic arithmetic operations with natural numbers
T      P      L      Alt    Ext. L Stu    A. time Total 
4,0 4,0 3,0 0 0 6,0 6,0 23,0
Definition and specification of combinational circuits using a truth table.



NOT, AND and OR logic gates.



Miniterm summary. Examples: XOR, decoder and multiplexor.



Synthesis using a decoder and OR gates and ROM-based synthesis.



Boolean algebra: a tool for analytical and summary purposes.



Arithmetic operations with natural numbers: sum, subtraction, multiplication.











  • Laboratory
    Introduction to LogicWorks, logic gates and implementation and analysis of simple combinational devices (XOR gate and Half-adder) (Lab 1).
    Combinational implementation of a Binary Adder. (Lab 2, first part)










  • Additional laboratory activities:
    Lab session preparation. Review of related theory. Write a report prior to the lab session.
    (Lab 1, and Lab 2 first part).

4. Introduction to sequential logic circuits
T      P      L      Alt    Ext. L Stu    A. time Total 
3,0 3,0 2,0 0 4,0 4,5 0 16,5
Introduction: need for synchronisation and memory.



Definition and specification using state graphs.



Analysis and summary with a minimum number of edge-triggered bistables.



Analysis and summary with an edge-triggered bistable.











  • Laboratory
    Sequential implementation of a Binary Adder (Lab 2 second part).
    Implementation, with an edge-triggered bistable, of a control unit with a special maths co-processor (sequential multiplier of natural numbers). (Lab 3, second part).







  • Additional laboratory activities:
    Lab session preparation. Review of related theory. Write a report prior to the lab session.

    (Lab 2, second part, and Lab 3, second part).

5. Special-purpose processors
T      P      L      Alt    Ext. L Stu    A. time Total 
5,0 5,0 3,0 0 6,0 7,5 0 26,5
Processor of n bit words. Processing unit, and control unit.



Design of combinational and sequential blocks.



Design of special-purpose processors with control units and processing units.



Asynchronous input/output through a handshaking protocol.











  • Laboratory
    Implementation of a processing unit in a special-purpose arithmetic co-processor (sequential multiplier of natural numbers).
    (Lab 3, first part).
    Implementation of a handshaking protocol for an arithmetic co-processor (Lab 4).



  • Additional laboratory activities:
    Lab session preparation. Review of related theory. Write a report prior to the lab session.

    (Lab 3, first part, and Lab 4).

6. Integers: numeration system, basic operations and implementation.
T      P      L      Alt    Ext. L Stu    A. time Total 
2,0 2,0 0 0 0 3,0 0 7,0

7. Towards a general-purpose processor
T      P      L      Alt    Ext. L Stu    A. time Total 
4,0 4,0 2,0 0 4,0 6,0 0 20,0
General processing unit. Adding data memory. Load and store instructions. From explicit sequencing to implicit sequencing. Coding control signals. Instruction format. General control unit.











  • Laboratory
    Implementation of an arithmetic co-processor, with a generic processing unit and a special-purpose control unit.
    (Lab 5)
  • Additional laboratory activities:
    Lab session preparation. Review of related theory. Write a report prior to the lab session. (Lab 5)

8. Machine Language and Assembler
T      P      L      Alt    Ext. L Stu    A. time Total 
2,0 2,0 1,0 0 2,0 3,0 0 10,0

  • Laboratory
    Machine Language and Assembler SISA-1. Code assembly and disassembly. (Lab 6, first part)

  • Additional laboratory activities:
    Lab session preparation. Review of related theory. Write a report prior to the lab session.
    (Lab 6, first part)

9. Computer based on the SISP-1 processor (single-cycle)
T      P      L      Alt    Ext. L Stu    A. time Total 
2,0 2,0 1,0 0 2,0 3,0 0 10,0
General structure of the computer.



Design of a processing unit and a control unit.



Example of programme execution.



Various modifications.



Cycle time. Disadvantages of the single-cycle design.











  • Laboratory
    Implementaciˇn of multiplication algorithms on a SISP-1-1 computer. Input/Output queries.
    (Lab 6 second part)

  • Additional laboratory activities:
    Lab session preparation. Review of related theory. Write a report prior to the lab session. (Lab 6 second part)

10. Computer based on the SISP-2 processor (multi-cycle)
T      P      L      Alt    Ext. L Stu    A. time Total 
2,0 2,0 0 0 0 3,0 0 7,0
Introduction to multi-cycle design.



Design of a processing unit and a control unit.



Programme execution. Execution time.



Various modifications.

11. Preparation for the part exam.
T      P      L      Alt    Ext. L Stu    A. time Total 
0 0 0 0 0 6,0 0 6,0

12. Preparation for the final exam.
T      P      L      Alt    Ext. L Stu    A. time Total 
0 0 0 0 0 12,0 0 12,0


Total per kind T      P      L      Alt    Ext. L Stu    A. time Total 
27,0 25,0 12,0 0 18,0 56,5 6,0 144,5
Avaluation additional hours 5,0
Total work hours for student 149,5

Docent Methodolgy

(-)

Evaluation Methodgy

In the computation of the final grade of this course the following grades are involved (all grades are out of 10).

NF = final grade of the course.
NB = final grade for theory and problems of level B objectives (knowledge and comprehension levels)
NA = final grade for theory and problems of level A objectives (application level)
NL = final lab grade.

NF = 0.6 x NC + 0.2 x NA + 0.2 x NL

Grade NB can be computed in two different ways: either by continuous evaluation during the course or by a final exam on level B objectives. Grade NA is obtained exclusively from a final exam on level A objectives (hence final exam has two different parts).

Grade NB can be obtained as the result of continuous evaluation as the weighted average mark of individual exams at the end of each major topic of the course (8 exams), denoted as PFTs, if the student achieves a minimum grade of 6. The 8 weights used to compute the average mark are: 1, 1, 1.5, 1,1.5, 1, 1.5, 1.5. If a student attends the final exam of level B objectives, he/she resigns to the grade obtained by continuous evaluation and is given the grade of the exam.

The grade NL is computed as the average of the marks obtained in each one of the 6 lab sessions. Each lab session grade, namely NLi (for i = 1 to 6) is computed as:

NLi = 0.65 x PPi + 0.35 IFi  if the preliminary report is delivered at the beginning of the lab session.

NLi = 0       if preliminary report is not delivered.

PPi is the grade of an individual test done at the beginning of the lab session which will contain similar questions to the ones that appear in the preliminary report.

IFi is the grade for the final report that is fulfilled during the lab session.

To foster collaborative working teachers can promote different activities which can be graded subjectively up to 0.5 points per student. This grade will be added to the final grade, NF, up to a maximum grade of 10.

Any attempt of fraud during the course will entail the application of the UPC's general academic normative and the beginning of a disciplinary process.

Basic Bibliography

(no available informacion)

Complementary Bibliography

(no available informacion)

Web links

(no available informacion)

Previous capacities

(-)


Compartir

 
logo FIB © Barcelona school of informatics - Contact - RSS
This website uses cookies to offer you the best experience and service. If you continue browsing, it is understood that you accept our cookies policy.
Classic version Mobile version