Es vol definir un sistema informàtic que permeti simular numèricament diferents estratègies de control de sistemes complexos .
The JPEG standardization committee (ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29/WG1) has developed a new part of "JPEG Systems". This Part 4 standardizes some mechanisms for adding privacy and security to standard JPEG images. The DMAG (Distributed Multimedia Applications Group) of the Computer Architecture Department of the UPC has contributed to the specification of this new standard. Most JPEG standards are complemented with "Reference Software", which implements most of the features of the standard in order to demonstrate its feasibility and give hints on how to implement it. The objective of this project is to produce a first draft version of a partial implementation of Reference Software for the new JPEG Privacy and Security (JPEG P&S) specification. Since JPEG P&S is based on the concept of the JPEG Universal Metadata Box Format (JUMBF), specified in the new part 5 of JPEG Systems, it might be necessary to also implement some elements of JUMBF. The results of this work could be contributed to the JPEG standardization committee for its approval.
FHIR (Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources) is a set of standards developed by HL7 International to facilitate eHealth information interoperability and use. On the other hand, different efforts are in place to improve the representation (more compression and security) of Genomic information, such as those from the GA4GH (Global Alliance for Genomics and Health) and the MPEG standardization committee. The DMAG (Distributed Multimedia Applications Group) of the Computer Architecture Department of the UPC is involved in the specification of some of these new standards. The objective of this project is to integrate genomic information into EHRs (Electronic Health Records). For this purpose, the different standards for the representation of medical and genomic information will be analysed, and FHIR will be used to faclitate that integration. Finally, a small prototype will be developed, probably making use of existing open source software. The results of this work could be contributed to one of the different standardization organizations for its consideration.
Es tracta de definir i realitzar un primer prototip d'una interfície persona-ordinador basada en la projecció virtual d'un teclat en el palmell de la ma.
Les ulleres de realitat augmentada ens permet superposar informació en objectes d'imatges reals, en aquest cas el palmell de la mà. L'objectiu principal del projecte és realitzar un sistema de visió per computador que detecti un palmell, projecti un teclat simplificat en ell i detecti la pulsació ràpida d'un dit sobre les tecles virtuals.
Languages follow many statistical regularities called laws. Perhaps the most popular example is Zipf's law for word frequencies, that relates the frequency of a word with its rank, but other laws have been formulated, such as the law of abbreviation, the law of meaning-distribution, the meaning-frequency law,...and so on (Zipf 1949). About 15 years ago, a family of optimization models was introduced to shed light on the origins of Zipf's law for word frequencies (Ferrer-i-Cancho & Solé 2003, Ferrer-i-Cancho 2005). In that family, language is modelled as a bipartite graph where words connect to meanings and a cost function is defined based on the structure of that graph. A simple Monte Carlo algorithm was used to minimize the cost function while the structure of the graph was allowed to vary. Recently, it has been shown how these models shed light on how children learn words (Ferrer-i-Cancho 2017). The aim of this project is to investigate new versions of these models (e.g., Ferrer-i-Cancho & Vitevitch 2018) in two directions: (1) Providing an efficient implementation of the optimization algorithm. (2) Comparing the statistical properties of the model against the statistical properties of natural communication systems.
In greater detail, the two directions consist of
(1) Providing an efficient implementation of the optimization algorithm. See Ferrer-i-Cancho and Solé (2003) and Ferrer-i-Cancho (2005) for further details about the algorithm. Evaluating the cost for a given bipartite graph from scratch has cost of the order of nm, where n is the number of words and m is the number of meanings. Decinding when to stop the optimizacion algorithm requires (nm)^2 evaluations of the cost function (in practice it had to be cut down to about nm due to computational costs). For these reasons, n and m have been kept small in previous studies compared to real values in fully fledged human language (e.g., n = m = 150 in Ferrer-i-Cancho and Solé 2003). This computational callenge would be solved applying different techniques, e.g., (a) parallelization (b) dynamic calculation (when changing a few cells of the adjacency matrix, the cost function should not be computed from scratch) and (c) heuristics to speed up the Monte Carlo scheme.
(2) Comparing the statistical properties of the model against the real statistical properties of human language (e.g., linguistics laws) and animal communication, including properties that have not been tested in previous research on these models. See Ferrer-i-Cancho (2018) for an overview of some of the statistical properties of real language that could be tested.
Depending on the personal interests of the student, the project can focus in one of the two directions.
It is possible to publish the results of the project in a research journal.
Ferrer-i-Cancho, R. & Solé, R. V. (2003). Least effort and the origins of scaling in human language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100, 788-791.
Ferrer-i-Cancho, R. (2005). Zipf's law from a communicative phase transition. European Physical Journal B 47, 449-457.
Ferrer-i-Cancho, R. (2017). The optimality of attaching unlinked labels to unlinked meanings. Glottometrics 36, 1-16.
Ferrer-i-Cancho, R. & Vitevitch, M. S. (2018). The origins of Zipf's meaning-frequency law. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 69 (11), 1369-1379.
Ferrer-i-Cancho, R. (2018). Optimization models of natural communication. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics 25 (3), 207-237.
Zipf, G.K. (1949). Human behaviour and the principle of least effort. Cambridge (MA), USA: Addison-Wesley.